September 2014
18
Via   •   Source
haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and/or the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.
According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)
Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”
Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 
⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 
Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)
So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.
⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who have favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)
At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 
To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:
The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))
Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are comfortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornament. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

haitianhistory:

Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and/or the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.

According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)

Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”

Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 

⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 

Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)

So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.

⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who have favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)

At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 

To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:

  • The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
  • The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))

Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are comfortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornament. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

September 2014
18
Via   •   Source

retrogirly:

Soviet Fashions of the 60s

September 2014
18
Via   •   Source

"I’m sorry to America!"

September 2014
18
Via   •   Source

EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE VOTE

npr:

ari-abroad:

image

On September 18th, Scotland will vote on whether to secede from the UK. Polls suggest it could be a cliffhanger.

I’ve made several reporting trips to Scotland over the last few months, looking at different aspects of the debate. Here are links to some of the stories you may have missed:

Will North Sea Oil keep an independent Scotland afloat?

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/06/30/326777014/in-shetland-oil-shapes-debate-over-scottish-independence

What will happen to Britain’s nuclear weapons?

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/08/23/342422422/scotlands-independence-vote-and-the-fate-of-britains-nuclear-subs

What does a neon-orange soft drink tell us about Scottish nationalism?

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/08/27/343727147/its-not-whisky-but-everyone-in-scotland-drinks-it-by-the-bottle

After 300 years of marriage, why does Scotland want a divorce?

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/03/18/289410520/after-300-years-of-marriage-scotland-contemplates-uk-divorce

The cakes referendum!

http://www.npr.org/2014/03/18/291172099/will-scotland-leave-the-uk-one-cafe-sells-cakes-to-find-out

And finally —

Border tensions between England and Scotland have been around a LONG time. At least 2,000 years:

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/08/30/344031401/the-wall-that-defined-scotlands-past-and-the-vote-on-its-future

via Ari Shapiro.

September 2014
18
Via   •   Source

What Scotland has

materialsworld:

The battle for Scottish independence may be reaching a nail-biting, chest-thumping climax but what resources are on the table?

image

1. According to the Scottish Government, the total value of minerals produced on shore totalled £650m in 2011, with coal accounting for half of that tally.

2. Scotland has coal reserves of 30mt. Other mineral resources include iron ore, lead, zinc, clay, gold, tin, chalk, potash, gypsum and slate.

3. In 2011, oil and gas exports valued £2.4bln, with 24 billion barrels of oil equivalent yet to be recovered. Scotland is said to hold 60% of the EU’s total reserves.

4. A tidal energy project is planned for the Pentland Firth region. The 398MW Meygen project could power 175,000 homes.

5. About 35% of Scotland’s energy comes from renewable sources. Approximately 32% of the UK’s total renewable power is generated north of the border.

6. Scotland has 25% of Europe’s offshore wind resources.

7. It also contains 90% of the UK’s freshwater

By

* Stats compiled by the Scottish and UK Governments

September 2014
17
Via   •   Source

hoodbypussy:

Évolution inversée

“It took me four years to paint like Raphael, but a lifetime to paint like a child.”
― Pablo Picasso

#art   #picasso   #inspiration   
September 2014
17
Via   •   Source
#art   #protips   
September 2014
17
Via   •   Source

you've been wrong since the beginning: A Tutorial Masterpost 

dragonagestuff:

norisus:

I said that I’d show some tutorials I have saved up to someone, but decided that I’d just go ahead and post most of what I have stored away and create a sort of masterpost out of it. (I figure it’ll help me just as much since, as of now, they’re all pretty scattered between my Tumblr and bookmarks)

A lot of these are hosted on my personal Tumblr, but I don’t change my url so it’s pretty safe to bookmark them there (and not have to worry about the url changing) if you don’t wish to reblog them yourself for whatever reason.

Feline tutorials:

Canine tutorials:

Avian tutorials:

Human(oid) tutorials:

Dragon tutorials (and bat wings):

Equine tutorials:

Cervine tutorials:

Ursine tutorials:

Miscellaneous animal tutorials:

Background and objects tutorials:

Clothing tutorials:

General painting, drawing, and style tips:

Hope these help!

Not a Da Related Post, but i Know that a lot of amazing artists follow me, so maybe this could be really interesting for you <3
Hav fun <3

#art   #tutorials   #masterpost   #reference   
September 2014
17
Via   •   Source
millilicious:

starrify-everything:

Please tell me if any of the links aren’t working
Faces:
Face Tutorial
Quick Face Tutorial
Profile Anatomy
Drawing Heads
Basic Head Layout
How to Draw Ears
Drawing Noses
How To Draw Mouths
Lips
Lips Ref
Semi-Realistic Eye Tutorial
Tips for Drawing Eyes
Manga Eye Tutorial
Pixel Eye
Expressions
Step by Step Expressions
How to Avoid the Same Face
Head Angles
Beards
Hair:
Drawing Hair In Pencil
How To Draw Braids
Another Braid tutorial
Headband Braid Tutorial
How To Draw Hair
Hair Tutorial
Another Hair Tutorial
Also Another Hair Tutorial
Tutorial: Hair
Tutorial for Hair
Simple Hair Tutorial
Hairstyle Tutorial
50 Male Hairstyles Revamped 
Let’s Do Hair!
Curls
Pixel Hair Tutorial
Manga Boys Hair Tutorial
Bodies:
A Guide to Drawing the Human Body
How To Draw Hands
Hand Tutorial
Hand Gestures
More Hand Gestures
Arm Tutorial
Feet Drawing Guide
Foot Tutorial
Drawing Feet
Knees
Sitting Poses
Drawing Torsos
Abs Tutorial
Clothes and Accessories:
Clothing Tutorial (Notes)
How to Draw Flower Crowns
Helmets and Hats
Hoods
Fashion
How to Draw Tights
Jeans
Boot Tutorial
Plaid Tutorial
Lace Tutorial
Armour Tutorial
Creatures:
Wings
Folded Wings
Tutorial on Creature Design
Bat Wings on Humans
Pegasus Wings
Animal Legs on Humans
Dragon Tutorial
Dragon Wing Tutorial
Dragon Hands and Feet Tutorial
Dragon Mouth Tutorial
Dragon Head Tutorial
Dragon Scales
Clawed Hand Tutorial
Basic Horn Tutorial
Sauropod Tutorial
How to Draw Centaurs
Werewolf Anatomy
Animals/insects:
Animal Noses
Basic Animal Anatomy
Paw Tutorial
Fur Tutorial
Pixel Fur Tutorial
Painting Fur
Ponies
Horse Tutorial
Horse Proportions
Horse Hooves
Horse Legs
Dog Anatomy
Simple Dog Tutorial
Wolf Paw Tutorial
Wolf Head Tutorial
Drawing a Wolf
Canine Leg Tutorial
Feline Comparison
Big Cat Paw Tutorial
Lion Head Tutorial
Cat Faces Tutorial
Snow Leopard Tutorial
Tiger Tutorial
Fox Tutorial
Rabbit Drawing Tips
Butterfly Tutorial
Rat Tutorial
Owl Anatomy
Feather Tutorial
Bear Anatomy
Objects:
Glowing Stuff
How to Draw 3D Rooms
Gun Ref
Slime Tutorial
Chain Tutorial
Gemstone Tutorial
Bullet Metal Tutorial
Lightsaber Tutorial
Gold Coin Tutorial
Jewel Tutorial
Nature/Food:
Tree Tutorial
How to Create Stars (With Photoshop)
Stars Tutorial
How to Draw Clouds
How to Draw a Rose
Simple Roses
Grass Tutorial
Another Grass Tutorial
Quick Grass Tutorial
Bush Tutorial
Rain Tutorial
Water Tutorial
Underwater Tutorial
Fire Tutorial
Snow Tutorial
Light Tutorial
Light Sparkle Tutorial
Mountain Tutorial
Another Mountain Tutorial
Moon Tutorial
How to Draw a Apple
Strawberry Tutorial
Colours:
The Psychology of Colour
How To Colour
Colour Blender
Colour Scheme Designer
Colour Meanings For Roses
Color Hex
Colour Harmony
Skin Colour Palette
Pastel Colours
Greyscale Tutorial
Colouring Cloth
Hair Colouring
Photoshop Colouring Tutorial
Other:
Pixel Art Tutorial
Another Pixel Art Tutorial
Photoshop Brushes
Photoshop Layers Tutorial
Glitch Effect (with Photoshop)
Gimp Soft Shading
Blending Tutorial
Free Digital Sculpting Tool
Skeleton Drawing Tool
Repeating Pattern Tutorial
Free Art Programs
Silk - Interactive Generative Art
Creativity Cards
Don’t Know What to Draw?

better than school tbh

millilicious:

starrify-everything:

Please tell me if any of the links aren’t working

Faces:

Face Tutorial

Quick Face Tutorial

Profile Anatomy

Drawing Heads

Basic Head Layout

How to Draw Ears

Drawing Noses

How To Draw Mouths

Lips

Lips Ref

Semi-Realistic Eye Tutorial

Tips for Drawing Eyes

Manga Eye Tutorial

Pixel Eye

Expressions

Step by Step Expressions

How to Avoid the Same Face

Head Angles

Beards

Hair:

Drawing Hair In Pencil

How To Draw Braids

Another Braid tutorial

Headband Braid Tutorial

How To Draw Hair

Hair Tutorial

Another Hair Tutorial

Also Another Hair Tutorial

Tutorial: Hair

Tutorial for Hair

Simple Hair Tutorial

Hairstyle Tutorial

50 Male Hairstyles Revamped 

Let’s Do Hair!

Curls

Pixel Hair Tutorial

Manga Boys Hair Tutorial

Bodies:

A Guide to Drawing the Human Body

How To Draw Hands

Hand Tutorial

Hand Gestures

More Hand Gestures

Arm Tutorial

Feet Drawing Guide

Foot Tutorial

Drawing Feet

Knees

Sitting Poses

Drawing Torsos

Abs Tutorial

Clothes and Accessories:

Clothing Tutorial (Notes)

How to Draw Flower Crowns

Helmets and Hats

Hoods

Fashion

How to Draw Tights

Jeans

Boot Tutorial

Plaid Tutorial

Lace Tutorial

Armour Tutorial

Creatures:

Wings

Folded Wings

Tutorial on Creature Design

Bat Wings on Humans

Pegasus Wings

Animal Legs on Humans

Dragon Tutorial

Dragon Wing Tutorial

Dragon Hands and Feet Tutorial

Dragon Mouth Tutorial

Dragon Head Tutorial

Dragon Scales

Clawed Hand Tutorial

Basic Horn Tutorial

Sauropod Tutorial

How to Draw Centaurs

Werewolf Anatomy

Animals/insects:

Animal Noses

Basic Animal Anatomy

Paw Tutorial

Fur Tutorial

Pixel Fur Tutorial

Painting Fur

Ponies

Horse Tutorial

Horse Proportions

Horse Hooves

Horse Legs

Dog Anatomy

Simple Dog Tutorial

Wolf Paw Tutorial

Wolf Head Tutorial

Drawing a Wolf

Canine Leg Tutorial

Feline Comparison

Big Cat Paw Tutorial

Lion Head Tutorial

Cat Faces Tutorial

Snow Leopard Tutorial

Tiger Tutorial

Fox Tutorial

Rabbit Drawing Tips

Butterfly Tutorial

Rat Tutorial

Owl Anatomy

Feather Tutorial

Bear Anatomy

Objects:

Glowing Stuff

How to Draw 3D Rooms

Gun Ref

Slime Tutorial

Chain Tutorial

Gemstone Tutorial

Bullet Metal Tutorial

Lightsaber Tutorial

Gold Coin Tutorial

Jewel Tutorial

Nature/Food:

Tree Tutorial

How to Create Stars (With Photoshop)

Stars Tutorial

How to Draw Clouds

How to Draw a Rose

Simple Roses

Grass Tutorial

Another Grass Tutorial

Quick Grass Tutorial

Bush Tutorial

Rain Tutorial

Water Tutorial

Underwater Tutorial

Fire Tutorial

Snow Tutorial

Light Tutorial

Light Sparkle Tutorial

Mountain Tutorial

Another Mountain Tutorial

Moon Tutorial

How to Draw a Apple

Strawberry Tutorial

Colours:

The Psychology of Colour

How To Colour

Colour Blender

Colour Scheme Designer

Colour Meanings For Roses

Color Hex

Colour Harmony

Skin Colour Palette

Pastel Colours

Greyscale Tutorial

Colouring Cloth

Hair Colouring

Photoshop Colouring Tutorial

Other:

Pixel Art Tutorial

Another Pixel Art Tutorial

Photoshop Brushes

Photoshop Layers Tutorial

Glitch Effect (with Photoshop)

Gimp Soft Shading

Blending Tutorial

Free Digital Sculpting Tool

Skeleton Drawing Tool

Repeating Pattern Tutorial

Free Art Programs

Silk - Interactive Generative Art

Creativity Cards

Don’t Know What to Draw?

better than school tbh

#art   #reference   #tutorials   #masterpost   
September 2014
17
Via   •   Source

It’s comiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiing

hojbjergpierre:

lukas—31:

image

the best part is the guy’s face like… “ugh, not again”

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